Download NECO 2023/2024 Biology Practical Specimen And Answers PDF

By | July 11, 2023

Download the real and correct NECO 2023/2024 Biology practical specimen for Senior secondary students. This is an updated list of specimen as released by the National Examination Council (NECO).

In this article, I will show you the full and newly approved specimen for science students. Follow the link below to download this year’s specimen.

Other are searching: 2023 NECO SSCE specimen for biology examination, latest specimen for science students, this year’s Biology practical specimen. NECO 2023 Biology Practical group A, B, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P,….

All biology practical exam real questions and answers will be posted here during your examination. Keep refreshing this page for more updates…

2023 NECO Biology Practical Specimen

Specimen A – Land Snail
Specimen B – Toad
Specimen C – Spider
Specimen D – Crayfish
Specimen E- Spirogyra Filaments
Specimen F – mucor/Rhizopus
Specimen G – Groundnut Seeding (A week old)
Specimen H – Maize Seedling (A week old)
Specimen I – Microscope
Specimen J – Slide (plain)
Specimen K – Pigeon
Specimen L – Agama Lizard
Specimen M – Rat
Specimen N – Tilapia


Habitat of Specimen A
Specimen A lives in shrub lands, agricultural areas, plantations, garden, wetland etc.
Phylum – Mollusca
Class – Gastropoda

Observable Features that adapts Specimen A to its habitats

Lungs – Adapt to land habitat through the use of lungs that take in oxygen.
Shells – for protection
Tentacles – for vision and feelings

Economic Importance of Specimen A

  1. they provide food for all sorts of mammals, birds, earthworm e.t.c
  2. They cause great disaster to farmers.
  3. they consume rotten vegetation like leaf.

Mode of feeding of Specimen A

Is by Scraping and they mostly feed on leave and insect

Sex of Specimen A: intersex / Bisexual (The with bigger shell are mainly female)

Specimen B: Toad

Habitat of Specimen B: Wet/moist/damp land/under stone/damp grass/vegetation near freshwater ponds.

Class Specimens B Belongs : Amphibia

Observable Features That Adapt Toad/Specimen B to its Habitat

  • Poison gland for protection;
  • Warty skin for camouflage;
  • Webbed digits of hind limbs for swimming;
  • Bulging eyes for good vision;
  • Muscular forelimbs; for absorbing shock;
  • Long muscular hind limbs for jumping/hopping Cryptic coloration for camouflage;
  • Moist skin for (cutaneous) respiration.

Mode of Feeding of Toad

It’s by tongue Projection, Toads have a long, sticky tongue that they can rapidly project out of their mouth to catch prey.

Economic Importance of Specimen B

Predator-Prey Dynamics: Toads help regulate populations of insects and other invertebrates, playing a crucial role in balancing predator-prey
Nutrient Cycling: Contribute to nutrient cycling through consumption and waste release.
Indicators of Environmental Health: Toads serve as indicator species, reflecting the overall health of ecosystems and signaling changes in water quality and habitat conditions.

Seed Dispersal: Toads inadvertently aid in seed dispersal by consuming fruits or seeds and excreting them in different locations, facilitating plant colonization and genetic diversity.
Prey for Predators: Toads provide a food source for various predators, contributing to the energy flow and trophic interactions within ecosystems.
Genetic Diversity: Toads contribute to overall genetic diversity in ecosystems, allowing for adaptation to changing environmental conditions and promoting resilience.

Specimen C – Spider

       Spider Specimen Diagram

Forests (temperate and tropical)/Grasslands/ Deserts/Wetlands (marshes, swamps)/ Caves/ Mountains/ Scrubland (scrublands)

Class Of Specimen C: Arachnida

Observable Features that Enables Specimen C Adapt to its Habitat

Leg Structure: Adapted for specific
Spinnerets: Silk-producing appendages for web-bonfire building.
Chelicerae and Fangs: Adapted for prey capture and venom injection.
Body Size and Shape: Varies based on habitat requirements.
Eyes: Adapted for visual capabilities and prey detection.

Mode of Feeding of Spider

Spiders immobilize prey by biting and injecting venom or using silk to wrap it.

Economic/Biological Importance of Specimen C

Spiders eat household pests
Spiders are good for gardens
Spiders kill off disease-carrying insects
Spider venom can treat medical conditions.
Spiders are a food source for other animals.
Spiders are an essential part of the ecosystem.


Crayfish – Dorsal View

Diagram of Specimen D Crayfish

Habitat: Freshwater Habitats, Streams and Rivers, Lakes, and Ponds e.t.c.
Class of Specimen C: Arthropoda

Observable Features That Adapt Specimen D to its Habitat

  • Claws and Appendages: Large, powerful claws for defense and prey capture.
    Walking legs with specialized structures for movement and stability.
  • Exoskeleton and Body Shape: Protective exoskeleton for defense. Compressed body shape for maneuverability in narrow spaces.
  • Antennae and Sensory Organs: Long antennae with chemoreceptors for detecting chemicals. Sensory setae for perceiving movements and vibrations.
  • Abdomen and Tail: i. Uropods and swimmerets for swimming and stability. ii. Tail fan and telson for propulsion and protection.

Economic Importance of Specimen D

It plays a key role in indicating water quality, keystone controls of trophic webs, and bio indicators of communities or habitats.

They are a very good source of protein and are very beneficial for human health, widely eaten throughout the world
The food industry has been
upgraded because of this crayfish as it is in very demand for the purpose of health among the customers.
Mode of Feeding of Crayfish
Crayfish use pincers to grab food and legs to guide it into their mouths. They employ chelipeds to tear apart tough food.
Food Chain Of Crayfish
Algae and Aquatic- Plants Herbivorous
Invertebrates – Crayfish


Labelled Diagram of Specimen E

Habitat of specimen E (Spirogyra): Fresh water such as ponds and lakes.

Kingdom of Specimen E: Protista

Phylum of Specimen E: Chlorophyta

Type of Reproduction in Specimen E:

  • a. Sexual Reproduction by conjugation
  • b. Asexual Reproduction by Fragmentation.


                         Labelled Diagrams of Specimen F

Habitat of Specimen F (mucor/Rhizopus): Moist or humid environment, on decaying food substrates such as bread, jam, jellies, fruits, vegetables etc.

Phylum of Specimen F: Zygomycota

Types of Reproduction in Specimen F

  • a. Asexual Reproduction by sporangiospores
  • b. Vegetative reproduction by fragmentation.
  • b. Sexual Reproduction by conjugation.


                         Labelled Diagrams of Specimen G

Botanical name of Specimen G: Arachis hypogaea

Kingdom: plantae

Phylum: Tracheophyta

Type of germination: epigeal

Reason: the cotyledon is carried above the soil.

Examples of seeds that give rise to the type of germination of Specimen G (groundnut)

– Mango seed;
– Orange seed;
-Tomato seed;
– Bean seed;
– Castor oil seed;
– Crotalaria seed;
– Cashew nut;
– Date palm seed;
– Groundnut seed;
– Flamboyant seed etc.

Process of epigeal germination

-The testa splits,
– The radicle emerges;
– The radicle grows downward;
– Lateral roots develop/appear;
– Hypocotyl elongates;
– Pulling the cotyledons above the ground
– The testa is left in the soil;
– The hypocotyl is bent over;
– Carrying the cotyledons still closed together;
– To protect the plumule;
– The hypocotyl straightens;
– The cotyledons split/open;
– Foliage leaves emerge; Epicotyl grows out;
– Showing the apical bud;
– Foliage leaves open.

Type of seed/plant: dicot

Reason: because the seed has two cotyledon

Type of leaf venation: reticulate

Type of root/root system: Taproot

Type of crop: Annual crop


                         Labelled Diagrams of Specimen H

Botanical name of specimen H: Zea mays

Kingdom: plantae

Phylum: Tracheophyta

Type of germination: hypogeal

Reason: the cotyledon is left below the soil.

Type of seed/plant: monocot

Reason: Because the seed has only one cotyledon.

Type of leaf venation: parallel

Type of root/root system: fibrous root.

Type of crop: Annual crop

Agricultural classification of Specimen G and H

Specimen G: Legume and sometimes oil.

Specimen H: cereal

Conditions necessary for the germination of seeds.– Viable seed;

– Moisture/water;
– Air/oxygen;
– Warmth/suitable temperature;
– Light/sunlight.


Labelled Diagrams of Specimen I


  Labelled Diagrams of Specimen J


Labelled Diagram of Specimen L

Habitat: Walls/cracks/mountain slopes
Class of Specimen L : Reptilia

Observable Similarities in Specimen B Toad and L Agama Lizard

Both have (wide terminal) mouth;
Both have two pairs of four limbs (forelimb/hindlimb)
Both have tympanic membrane/eardrum/eardrum.

Both have trunk;

They both have eyes;

Both have head;

Both have nostril.

Observable Differences Between Specimen B (Toad) and Specimen L Agama Lizard

Sex of Specimen L: Male

Reasons for the answer above:

  • Brightly colored with redhead, blue-black trunk;
  • Blue and orange tail;
  • Presence of Gular fold
  • Prominent Nuchal crest.

Observable Features That Adapt Agama Lizard/Specimen L to its Habitat

Limbs: Well-developed for swift movement.
Claws: Sharp claws for gripping and climbing.
Tail: Long and agile for balance and
Head and Jaws: Adapted for capturing diverse prey.
Eyes: Positioned for a wide field of vision.
Skin: Covered in scales for protection and water regulation.
Coloration: Vibrant patterns for communication and camouflage.

Tongue: Long and agile tongue for capturing prey with precision.
Teeth: Sharp teeth for biting and gripping prey.
Jaw Muscles: Strong jaw muscles for powerful biting force.
Sensitive Toes: Specialized toes with sensory receptors for enhanced grip and balance on different surfaces.
Skin Pores: Numerous skin pores for
thermoregulation and water loss control.
Eyelids: Moveable eyelids for protecting the eyes and regulating light exposure.
Ear Openings: External ear openings for detecting sound waves and communication.

Feeding Strategies of Agama Lizard

  1. Sit-and-wait strategy: They perch and observe their surroundings.
  2. Lightning-fast strikes: Swiftly extend their body to snatch prey.
  3. Strong jaws: Secure a firm grip on the prey.
  4. Swallowing whole: Consume prey in one piece.


Diagram of Tilapia Fish

Habitat: Freshwater lakes, ponds, and rivers/ Marshes, swamps, and estuaries/ Coastal waters with varying salinity/ Aquaculture systems (fish
ponds, tanks, cages).

Class of Specimen N: Pisces Reason:

  • Body is covered with scales;
  • Presence of paired fins;
  • Presence of lateral line(s);
  • Presence of operculum/gill cover.

Observable Features That Enables Specimen N Adapts to its Habitat

  1. Gills: Extract oxygen from the water for respiration.
  2. Fins: Provide stability, maneuverability, and propulsion.
  3. Lateral Line System: Detect vibrations and changes in water movement.
  4. Scales: Provide protection and assist in buoyancy control.
  5. Swim Bladder: Regulate buoyancy and depth in the water.
  6. Mouth and Teeth: Adapted for specific feeding habits.

Characteristics of specimen N (Tilapia) that make it culturable

the ability to breed in captivity, tolerates poor water quality (but not low dissolved oxygen), accept artificial feed, matures early/fast maturity, acceptable to consumers, highly prolific/breeds easily, or breeds rapidly, utilizes natural food well/high Conversion of feed, has high resistance to disease.
Food Chain of Tilapia

Economic Importance of Specimen N

  • Fast-growing and adaptable, tilapia is extensively farmed worldwide, providing sustainable protein and generating revenue.
  • Tilapia efficiently converts feed into edible flesh, addressing global food security and meeting protein demands.
  • Tilapia farming creates job opportunities, particularly in rural areas, supporting skilled workers in breeding, feeding, and processing.
  • With high export value, tilapia contributes to international trade, supplying fresh and processed products.
  • Tilapia farming helps alleviate poverty, providing income and food security for small-scale farmers in developing
  • Sustainable tilapia-farming reduces pressure on wild fish stocks and promotes environmental sustainability.

NECO specimens are like the syllabus. All questions and answers for NECO SSCE Biology practical will come from these specimens given above.

NOTE: The specimen comes out few months before the main examination. This is to enable students to study and note the possible questions which may come out from those areas. During your studies, you are expected note the possible use of those specimens in different groups.

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